Internet Protocols (set of instructions) are used to transfer files or data from one machine to the other. All computers on the Internet communicate with each other using the Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). Thus, data is sent from the server to the client (and vice-versa) using TCP/IP.
Typically, the client is your browser and the server is a program running on a different computer. You use the browser on your computer (called the client machine in Internet lingo) to access the information on another computer (called the server machine). This server machine could be located thousands of miles from your workplace.
The File Transfer Protocol is an excellent method to transfer (download and send) files from one computer to the other on the Internet. Though you can transfer files using email, it is not a good choice especially when the file size is large or when you need to transfer several files. The objectives of FTP are to:
The HTTP provides a set of instructions for accurate information exchange. The communication between the client (your browser) and the server (a software located on a remote computer) involves requests sent by the client and responses from the server.
Detailed article on the HTTP Protocol
The Telnet protocol allows you to connect to another machine. Once connected, your computer behaves like a terminal of the distant machine and you can utilize all the resources on the remote system if you have the required permissions.
Details of the telnet Protocol
Protocols such as Gopher, Archie etc. were used extensively on the Internet. But now they have faded into oblivion; why? Thanks to the WWW. You can read more about Archie, Gopher, Veronica and Jughead in the History of the Internet article.
Email is the most used application on the Internet. Emails allow users to communicate with each other almost instantly. Each email message consists of a header and a body. The header contains the following information:
The world's first handheld commercially available mobile phone was Motorola's DynaTAC. It was priced at $3,995 upon release and had an LED display for dialling and recalling numbers. Martin Cooper of Motorola made the very first call from a cell phone using the DynaTAC on 3rd April 1973. [more...]